THE REAL ISSUE IN SPEAKING COMPETENCE
I. INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM
According to 2006 curriculum or popular with KTSP, there are four skills or abilities which must the learners do to comprehend their English spoken and written so that they have functional literacy in English. What are those four skills? They are listening, speaking, reading and writing. But now let me talk about the speaking ability. The topic here is the real issue in speaking competence.
For many learners, speaking has the second position of the difficult after listening. So what are the problems that able to make speaking has the condition like this?
Many language learners regard speaking ability as the measure of knowing a language. These learners define fluency as the ability to converse with others, much more than the ability to read, write, or comprehend oral language. They regard speaking as the most important skill they can acquire, and they assess their progress in terms of their accomplishments in spoken communication.
Language learners need to recognize that speaking involves three areas of knowledge:
available at ://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/spindex.htm.
a. Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): Using the right words in the right order with the correct pronunciation.
b. Functions (transaction and interaction): Knowing when clarity of message is essential (transaction/information exchange) and when precise understanding is not required (interaction/relationship building)
c. Social and cultural rules and norms (turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants): Understanding how to take into account who is speaking to whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
In the communicative model of language teaching, instructors help their students develop this body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that prepares students for real-life communication situations. They help their students develop the ability to produce grammatically correct, logically connected sentences that are appropriate to specific contexts, and to do so using acceptable (that is, comprehensible) pronunciation.
II. DISCUSSION AND SOLUTION
It’s not easy to make a good condition for the learners so that they can comprehend speaking. Furthermore, according to the above theory, we will find some problems.
The first problem comes from the mechanic who involves pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary. The real problems we find are students are poor in pronunciation, bad in grammar and also lack of vocabularies.
The second, the learners doesn’t realize what the function of speaking itself. So they are difficult to make transaction and interaction in their speaking for interpersonal and transactional needs.
The third, Social and cultural rules and norms also influence the learners in speaking skill. They include turn-taking, rate of speech, length of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants.
From the situation above we finally find Common problems faced by students in learning speaking. They are afraid of making mistakes in front of their teachers and friends. They find difficulties in terms of pronouncing English words since they are not familiar with its systems that differ from Indonesian systems. They are lack of vocabulary, and get difficulties in using them finally they are lack of confidence. They get difficulties in using the grammatical systems.
To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output.
Available at http://www.nclrc.org/essentials/speaking/goalsspeak.htm
1. Language input
Language input comes in the form of teacher talk, listening activities, reading passages, and the language heard and read outside of class. It gives learners the material they need to begin producing language themselves.
2. Structure output
Structured output focuses on correct form. In structured output, students may have options for responses, but all of the options require them to use the specific form or structure that the teacher has just introduced.
Structured output is designed to make learners comfortable producing specific language items recently introduced, sometimes in combination with previously learned items. Instructors often use structured output exercises as a transition between the presentation stage and the practice stage of a lesson plan. Textbook exercises also often make good structured output practice activities.
3. Communicative output
In communicative output, the learners’ main purpose is to complete a task, such as obtaining information, developing a travel plan, or creating a video. To complete the task, they may use the language that the instructor has just presented, but they also may draw on any other vocabulary, grammar, and communication strategies that they know. In communicative output activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across. Accuracy is not a consideration unless the lack of it interferes with the message.
III. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation.
To help students develop communicative efficiency in speaking, instructors can use a balanced activities approach that combines language input, structured output, and communicative output. So by the way we apply some methods: Performing memorised dialogues, Contextualised drills, Cued dialogues, Discourse Chains, Role play, Improvisation. We can apply one of them or even all of them which is suitable for our students condition.