THE TEACHING OF READING
1.1 Theoretical Background
Reading has a paramount importance in our everyday life. This activity requires many skills such as the use of sight, the conceptual ability, background knowledge and strategies. Reading involves the ability to recognize letters, meaning of words, relation of sentences, and paragraph coherence. Reading skills are not innate capacities of human being. Therefore to read effectively we must learn how to read using appropriate techniques.
Reading is a fluent process to combine information from a text and the reader’s background knowledge to build meaning. The prominent goal of reading is comprehension. Strategic reading is defined as the ability of the reading. God readers know what to do when they encounter difficulties. Fluency reading is defined as ability to read an appropriate rate with adequalte comprehension. Meaning does not rest in the reader nor does it rest in the text. The readers back ground knowledge integrates with the text to create the meaning. The text, the reader, fluency and strategies combined together define the act of reading.
1.2 Kinds of Reading
1.2.1 Silent Reading
Reading is primary silent activity. The majority of reading that we do will be done silently.
1.2.2 Oral Reading
Reading aloud is carried out by pronouncing the words. This kind of reading is usually used to teach speaking or pronunciation. Although there are two practice reading silent and oral reading (reading aloud), in fact silent reading is more frequently used.
1.3 The Models of Reading
The models of reading can be defined into three categories: bottom up models, top down model, and interactive model.
1.3.1 Bottom- up Models
These models typically consist of lower- level reading process. The readers start with fundamental basics of letter and sound recognition, which in turn allows for morpheme recognition followed by word recognition, building up to the identification of grammatical structures, sentences, and longer text. Letter, letter clusters, words, phrases, sentences, longer text, and finally meaning is the order in achieving comprehension.
1.3.2 Top- Down Models
Top down models begin with the idea that comprehension resides in the reader. The reader uses back ground knowledge, makes prediction and searches the text to confirm for reject the predictions that are made. The passage can go the understood even if all of the individual words are not understood.
1.3.3 Interactive Models of Reading
Interactive models of reading combine elements of both bottom-up and top-down models with the assumption that a pattern is synthesize based on information provided simultaneity from several knowledge sources.
2.1 The concept of teaching reading
The aim of teaching reading is to develop the students reading skills so that they can read English text effectively and efficiently. To be able to read effectively and efficiently readers should have a particular purpose in their mind before they interact with the text. Thus, effective reading is always purposeful. As McDonough and Shaw (1993:12) claim that “much of the current thinking of reading tends to focus primarily on the purpose of the current of the activities even if the reading is done for pleasure it is still purposeful.
The purpose of reading is generally classified into:
1. Getting general information from the text
2. Getting the specific information from the text
3. Reading for pleasure or for interest
This classification is implemented into the development of different reading skills e.g. skimming, scanning, reading between the lines, etc.
These reading skills are needed in a real life when people read different kinds of reading materials such as newspapers, manuals, brochures, recipe, letters etc.
Based on the understanding above we realize the importance of authentic reading materials to be used in the classroom in order to develop reading skills. We need to develop and foster the students appropriate reading skills according to different reading purposes. Students need for example to be encouraged to read quickly when it is appropriate to do so.
In another occasion they have to read the text intensively to get implicit information. Consequently, the transfer ability of principled flexible skills to different type of text is one of the most effective things to develop in the reading skill class (Mc Donough and Shaw: 1993:112)
2.2 The technique of teaching reading
Although on a worldwide level, the format the teaching reading skills may differ according to local circumstances, GBPP 1994 stresses the implementation the reading teaching skills in tan integrated skill unit. This means that reading is best integrated with other language skills.
In the classroom practice we, divide the reading activities into three related stages, i.e. pre reading activities, whilst reading activities and post reading activities (Williams: 1984, Wallace 1988, Wallace 1972).
2.2.1 Pre-reading acitivities
In these stages the integration of the four language skills could be seen.
a. To introduce and arouse interest in the topic.
b. To motivate learners by giving reasons for reading
c. To provide some language preparation for the text
Harmer (1991: 189) calls this stage, ‘Lead In’ in this stage the students and teacher prepare themselves for the tasks and make them familiar with the topic. As stated above, in this stage students create expectation and arouse their interest in the text.
We should know that the objectives of pre reading should be relevant with the type of the text being taught. Providing language preparation doesn’t intend to make teachers every singles difficult words and structure use in the text, but it helps learners to some extend avoid feeling frustrated by language carrier.
This phase of reading is intended to make learners aware of the reasons why have to read the text, in that they activate their relevance background knowledge (Schema) with they can bring to encounter the text more easily. Wallace (1992) claim that this stage place an important role to determine relevant reading strategies students will use during whilst reading tasks in relation to their purpose of reading.
Some pre-reading activities simply consist of questions to which students are required to find the answer from the text. However some various types of activities may be developed. Teachers can use pictures, realia and even songs relevant with the topic and students may discuss the tasks based on the above materials. They may also pre teach the key words trough some ways like: clusters, context, definition, antonym, synonym etc.
2.2.2 Whilst reading activities
In general this stage aims at helping learners to develop their reading strategies skills so that they can be effective and independent readers by implication, students should be flexible in their ways of reading which are appropriate to the given text. In this level students interact with the text by the help if their relevant background knowledge.(William) 1984 suggest that the activities in this phase of reading should be gradually develop from a global understanding of the text and then more to smaller units such as paragraph, sentences and words. The rationally behind this development is larger unit will provide a context for understanding the smaller ones.
The development of reading skills mostly occur in this stage. To be effective readers students should be able to:
a. Scan (glance at the text to get specific information)
b. Skim (glance to get the gist of the text)
c. Read between the lines
d. Read intensively for detailed information
e. Detect references
f. Deducing meaning from context
2.2.3 Post Reading Activities
The post reading stage (text related tasks) is intended as a kind of follow up activity. In this level students need to consolidate or reflect often what has been read. They need to relate the contents or idea of text to their own knowledge, interests or views.
The post reading tasks may vary from the simple one, e.g. filing in tables (without reading the text) up to the ones which are quite complex, e.g. writing letters. Of course all the tasks should be still related with the topic of reading the same as whilst reading stage, in the post reading students could also be encouraged to discuss the tasks in pair or groups. Thus students could also develop their speaking, listening and writing skills while they are accomplishing the post reading tasks.
2.2.4 Developing reading sub-skills
Most English teachers seem not to know what they should do to develop reading sub skills. They come to the class with text followed by several questions without analyzing what sub skills to be developed.
2.3 Principle for Teaching Reading
2.31. Exploit the reader’s background knowledge
A reader’s background knowledge can influence reading comprehension (Carrell, 1983, Carrell and Connor, 1991). It includes all of the experiences; life, educational, knowledge and cultural.
2.3.2 Build a strong vocabulary base
Recent research emphasized the importance of vocabulary to successful reading. (See Nation, Chapter 7, this volume.). Levine and Reeves (1990) have found that “it is easier for the reader of academic text to cope with special terminology than with general vocabulary. Nation (1990, p.4) could enhance the vocabulary instruction by asking:
1). What Vocabulary do my learners need to know?
2). How will they learn this vocabulary?
3). How I can best test to see what they need to know and what they now know?
2.3.3 Teach for comprehension.
Monitoring comprehension is essential to successful reading; the monitoring process includes verifying that the predication being made is correct. The skills to comprehend use both cognitive (thinking) and metacognitive (thinking about our thinking). This Activity is to be done during the reading process, not after reading (Beck et al., 1997, pp.34, 37).
The approach above requires that the teacher model the reading behavior of asking questions in order to make sense of what is being read. The approach of questions includes “What is the author trying to say here? What is the author’s message? What is the author talking about? What does the author mean?
2.3.4 Teaching of Reading Practice
Below is an example of carrying out the teaching of reading in the real classroom setting. In order to be easier to explain a sample lesson plan is made as the following:
RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN
( RPP )
SMP/MTs : ….
Mata Pelajaran : Bahasa Inggris
Kelas/Semester : IX (Sembilan) / 2
Jenis Teks : Naratif
Aspek / Skill : Membaca
Alokasi Waktu : 2 x 40 menit
1. Standar Kompetensi :
11. Memahami makna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk narrative dan report untuk berinteraksi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari
2. Kompetensi Dasar
11.1. Membaca nyaring bermakna teks tulis fungsional dan esei pendek sederhana berbentuk narrative dan report dengan ucapan, tekanan dan intonasi yang berterima untuk berinteraksi dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari
• Membaca nyaring dan bermakna teks berbentuk narative dengan ucapan tekanan dan intonasi yang tepat
4. Tujuan Pembelajaran
Pada akhir pembelajaran siswa dapat :
• Membaca teks naratif dengan ucapan, tekanan dan intonasi yang benar
• Melafalkan frasa, kata dan kalimat dengan benar
• Membaca frasa, kata ,kalimat dengan intonasi yang benar.
5. Materi Pembelajaran
• Teks naratif : “Princess Mandalika” ( Let’s Talk Grade IX page 17)
6. Metode Pembelajaran / Teknik : Three phase technique
7. Langkah-langkah Kegiatan
1. Kegiatan Pendahuluan
• Guru mengucap salam Salam dan mengabsen kehadiran siswa
• Siswa mendengarkan dan memperhatikan hal-hal untuk membaca teks naratif dengan baik
2. Kegiatan Inti
• Mendengarkan model membaca nyaring
• Menirukan membaca nyaring dengan intonasi, jeda dan ucapan yang benar
• Membaca nyaring sendiri dengan intonasi, lafal dan jeda dengan baik dan benar
3. Kegiatan Penutup
• Menanyakan kesulitan siswa dalam membaca nyaring
• Menyimpulkan materi pembelajaran
• Menugaskan siswa untuk latihan membaca nyaring dirumah.
8. Sumber Belajar
a. Buku Teks : Pel. Bhs Inggris kls IX : Depdiknas 2004)
a . Teknik : Tes lisan
b. Bentuk : performance (membaca nyaring)
A. Answer these questions!
1. Have you read the story of Princess Mandalika?
2. Do you like it?
B. Find the first verb of these words!
1. named = …
2. wanted = …
3. would = …
4. had = …
5. shot = …
6. found = …
7. began = …
8. decided = …
9. died = …
10. regretted = …
C. Read the text and answer the questions!
Once upon a time in Lombok, there was a kingdom named Kuripan. The King of kuripan was very wise. He had a daughter, named Mandalika. She was so beautiful. Many Princes wanted to marry her. To choose the one that would be his son in law. The king had an arrow shooting competition. The best one would be Mandalika’s husband.
On the day of the competition, those princes shot their arrows. All of them did perfectly. The king found it difficult to choose. Therefore, the princes began to fight and to kill each other.
Princess Mandalika was so desperate. She didn’t want anyone killing each other because of her. That’s why she decided to go to the sea. She dies in the south sea of Lombok. The king and princes were sad and left guilty. They regretted and stopped fighting.
Until now, one day in every year, usually in February or March, people go to the south sea. On that day, a great number of worms come out from the sea. People call these worms nyale. People believe that those nyales are Princess Mandalika’s hair.
1. What was the name of the kingdom?
2. How was the king?
3. Who was the king’s daughter?
4. How did the king choose son in law?
5. What did the princess do to avoid the fighting?
The most important thing to bear in mind while designing materials on reading class is the teachers must be sure that the tasks given to their students to develop the reading sub skill as written in their lesson plan (the objectives)
The three phase technique may be followed. The more important thing is however the development of the reading sub skills themselves is.
Table of Content
Table of Content
1.1 Theoretical Background 1
1.2 Kinds of Reading 1
1.2.1 Silent Reading 1
1.2.2 Oral Reading 2
1.3 The Models of Reading 3
1.3.1 Bottom- up Models 3
1.3.2 Top- Down Models 3
1.3.3 Interactive Models of Reading 3
II. DISCUSSION 4
2.1 The concept of teaching reading 4
2.2 The technique of teaching reading 5
2.2.1 Pre-reading acitivities 5
2.2.2 Whilst reading activities 6
2.2.3 Post Reading Activities 7
2.2.4 Developing reading sub-skills 7
2.3 Principle for Teaching Reading 7
2.31. Exploit the reader’s background knowledge 7
2.3.2 Build a strong vocabulary base 8
2.3.3 Teach for comprehension 8
2.3.4 Teaching of Reading Practice 8
III. CONCLUSION 12
ENGLISH TEACHING STRATEGY
THE TEACHING OF READING
BY GROUP 1:
1. AGUS RUDI PURWANTO
2. AHMAD SAOM
3. AI ROHAYATI
4. AKHMAD SUHEL
5. BAMBANG WIDYANARKO
6. CAHYO ROCHMAN E
7. EDY PURNOMO
8. FARID GUNAWAN
TEACHERS CERTIFICATION PROGRAM
UNIVERSITY OF JEMBER